Английский язык Единый государственный экзамен - комплекс материалов для подготовки учащихся - 2018


Раздел 1. Аудирование

1. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.

1. Not having to visit doctors is being somewhat healthy.

2. It’s important to reduce stress to be healthy.

3. To be healthy, you have to be thin.

4. To look healthy is not to be healthy.

5. To be in good health one needs to be active.

6. To be healthy one needs to use cosmetics.

7. To stay healthy you need a balance of mind and body.









2. Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А-G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 - True), какие не соответствуют (2 - False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного. Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

[A] Mike has been ill for a month.

[B] Mike’s classmates have paid him long visits.

[C] Mike loves watching TV.

[D] Mike found a very interesting program on TV.

[E] Jane had an easy day at school.

[F] Mike enjoys watching informative programs.

[G] Jane doesn’t agree to watch a quiz show on TV.









Соответствие диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3. The progress in the development of the English language was connected with ...

1) Shakespeare’s death.

2) discovering America.

3) settling in the New World.

Ответ: [ ]

4. Why did American colonists borrow words from natives for geographical names?

1) They were easy to pronounce.

2) It helped to communicate with natives.

3) They found it handy and useful.

Ответ: [ ]

5. How did the English language grow in colonial times?

1) It spread among natives.

2) It gained words from local languages.

3) It became the mother tongue for colonies.

Ответ: [ ]

6. Which of the following is TRUE about the English word “dog”?

1) It has a less popular synonym.

2) Its origins are very interesting.

3) It came from an African colony.

Ответ: [ ]

7. What, according to Sally, is one of the ways for new words to appear in English?

1) Putting words together.

2) Expansion of meanings of borrowed words.

3) Shortening of existing words.

Ответ: [ ]

8. What does Sally Smith say about the word “radar”?

1) No one knows where the word came from.

2) It’s an acronym.

3) It’s a borrowed foreign word.

Ответ: [ ]

9. Why is it difficult to count the exact number of English words?

1) Many of them have several meanings.

2) No one counts scientific words.

3) New words appear every day.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Women doing men’s jobs

2. Holidays - the best time to visit

3. Ideal to grow a man

4. A costume for a mythic sea creature

5. The best profession for a lady

6. A festival to a season

7. Words for all times

8. Best clothes for burial

A. Mary is a professional dress-maker specializing in exotic costumes. She devotes many hours to crafting mermaid tails and hand-made tops. Her professional mermaid costume includes a tail and a top. A tail is made of the finest silicone that bends naturally with movement and looks beautifully on film and in print. Out of the depths of the water her costume shines with hundreds of pearls, crystals, and gemstones.

B. Today’s well-educated person uses about 18,000 words. Shakespeare, whose plays written for a small theatre are now performed in more countries than ever before, used over 34,000 different words, thousands of which he made up. For example: accessible, roadway, schoolboy, and watchdog. Many of his phrases have fallen into everyday use in our language today, including, “A horse, a horse! My kingdom for a horse!” by Richard III.

C. The Celtic division of the year was into two parts. The winter half was considered the beginning of the year, and the summer half the second part. There were two further subdivisions, so the year was finally divided into the standard four seasons. At each of these four stages, a Fire Festival was celebrated. It involved religious ceremonies, music, storytelling, and poetry. These great festivals were regarded to be the best time.

D. As symbols of respect and courage, knights turned out to be an intriguing mix of all the things that made males the best, as their education included the most effective sorts of exercises for the brain and the human body. Knight tournaments were a good way for the knights to try out the actual travails of fighting and never having to go through the pain and troubles of having to look after themselves, and of their kingdoms.

E. Were there any women pirates in Renaissance England? They were in the minority, but they were never the less there and very able. Lady Mary was a daughter of a pirate and married to a pirate. When her husband died, she recruited her castle staff and went to sea herself. Her luck ran out when she captured a German captain, who was a friend of Queen Elizabeth. So Lady Mary quit piracy ... and started selling stolen goods.

F. Russia is an amazing holiday destination. It should be visited during the festival season, as it reveals the rich cultural tradition and fascinating customs of its people. While the festivals come from the Christian legacy Russia shares with Europe and America, the manner of celebration is unique. Enthusiastic travelers suggest planning a Russian holiday during the festival time and to be sure that the memories will last a lifetime!

G. Normally very fine textiles are found in graves. Obviously, the quality of clothing worn in the Middle Ages would reduce with lower ranks, but even the slaves did not wear cloth as rough as people thought in the past and some still do today. Slaves would probably wear their master’s clothes, which may have been very thin in places and not decorated. They would usually receive the underclothes to be worn as overclothes.









11. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

Singing can help when learning a foreign language

It is-a source of national embarrassment - despite hours of lessons and listening to foreign language tapes, most of us A _____________. However, a new study suggests there may be hope for those who have difficulty with a foreign language - they should try singing it instead.

Research found that adults who sang words or short phrases from a foreign language while learning were twice as good at speaking it later. It is thought that by listening to words that are sung, and by singing them back, the technique takes advantage of the strong links between music and memory.

Although not clearly understood, music is known to help students В _____________ recall.

Dr Overy said singing could lead to new approaches to learning a foreign language. She said: “Most people C _____________ from songs they have heard and songs are sometimes used by language teachers with young children.”

Dr Overy and her colleagues used recordings of Hungarian words to teach 60 adults. They chose Hungarian as the participants D _____________ language.

The participants either listened to words that were spoken and then had to repeat them back, much like a standard teach-yourself tape, or the words were said rhythmically or sung.

After a 15-minute learning period, they were then given several tests to see how well they had

learned the words. Those E _____________ scored highest. They were also better at recalling the words correctly in tests of long term memory. Interestingly, they did not sing the words when they recalled them.

Dr Ludke said the findings could help those F _____________.

1. when studying and can help to start memory

2. who struggle to learn foreign languages

3. had no experience of learning this

4. have experience of remembering words

5. who had used the “listen and sign” approach

6. can barely order a simple drink while abroad

7. facilitate verbatim memory for foreign languages








Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.


In some heavily multilingual areas of the world, most people learn a lingua franca - a regional trade language - in addition to their mother tongue. But when someone proposes English or French, say, as a trade language, objections inevitably arise. These languages are notoriously difficult to learn, with strange spellings and numerous grammatical rules and exceptions. But more importantly, they’re loaded with historical and cultural baggage. The only hope for a truly universal language would seem to be an artificial one - a language that is designed to be free from cultural biases and easy to learn. This was precisely the goal of Esperanto.

L. L. Zamenhof grew up in the late 1800s in Warsaw, which was a part of Russia at that time. While still in high school he set out to design a universal artificial language that would facilitate communication within his linguistically diverse community. By the time he finished this side project ten years later, Zamenhof was a practicing ophthalmologist. In 1887, Zamenhof published the first guide in Russian to the new language, which he called “Lingvo Intemacia”, meaning “international language”. Zamenhof wrote the textbook under the pseudonym “Esperanto,” meaning “a person who is hoping” in Lingvo Intemacia. Fans of the language decided that “Esperanto” had a nicer ring to it, and they soon adopted it as the informal name of the language.

Esperanto was designed to be both easy to learn and culturally neutral. According to some sources, an English speaker can learn Esperanto up to five times faster than Spanish. For starters, Esperanto uses strictly phonetic spelling - a given letter always makes exactly the same sound. Second, the structure of Esperanto is very simple, with only sixteen basic grammatical rules that need to be learned - and no exceptions to the rules such as irregular verbs. And third, Esperanto has a very small core vocabulary; new words are constructed by combining words and adding prefixes and suffixes.

The vocabulary of Esperanto will have a familiar ring to anyone who knows a European language, as roots were borrowed from French, German, and Spanish, among other languages. For examples: “bona” means “good”; “porko” means “pig”; “filo” means “son”; “hundo” means “dog.” One could argue that this selection represents not so much cultural neutrality as Euro-neutrality, but this hasn’t prevented Esperanto from becoming popular in China and some other parts of Asia.

For all its merits, Esperanto has not reached the level of acceptance its creator foresaw more than a century ago. There may be as many as two million people who speak Esperanto with at least a moderate level of proficiency, but probably no more than a few hundred who learned Esperanto at home as their first language and no known speakers over the age of three or so who speak only Esperanto. Ironically, the cultural neutrality that is touted as such a benefit of the language also serves to limit its growth, because languages tend to spread with the cultures that gave rise to them. Alas, unless or until the number of Esperanto speakers reaches a larger critical mass, it will be of little value as a trade language, and without a clear value, it will be difficult to convince people to learn it.

12. According to the text, an artificial language should ...

1) be similar to the mother tongues of the majority of speakers.

2) be based on cultural and historical traditions.

3) have clear grammatical rules and exceptions.

4) be simple and culturally neutral.

Ответ: [ ]

13. Zamenhof started to work on a new language because ...

1) it was his school home assignment.

2) he wanted to improve communication in his multilingual environment.

3) it was an important requirement for his job.

4) he had problems with studying Russian in Warsaw.

Ответ: [ ]

14. At first, the word “Esperanto” was used as the ...

1) name of the new language.

2) pen-name of the new language designer.

3) title of the book about the new language.

4) name of the place where the new language was designed.

Ответ: [ ]

15. According to the text, it is NOT true that ...

1) grammatical system of Esperanto is easy.

2) Esperanto is easier for the speakers of English.

3) Esperanto has a simple phonetic system.

4) the new words in Esperanto are built up by joining words.

Ответ: [ ]

16. According to the text, Esperanto represents Euro-neutrality because it is

1) designed for the Europeans.

2) based on European culture.

3) based on different European languages.

4) designed to be used within Europe.

Ответ: [ ]

17. The phrase “level of acceptance” in “Esperanto has not reached the level of acceptance its creator foresaw ...” (paragraph 5) means the level at which the language is ...

1) known.

2) developed.

3) spoken as the first language.

4) used.

Ответ: [ ]

18. The purpose of the text is to ...

1) encourage people to learn Esperanto.

2) give a general overview of Esperanto.

3) present grammar principles in Esperanto.

4) tell the story of the word “Esperanto”.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 11 Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

The history of parachutes

19. The-history of parachutes is full of surprises. The ____________ living thing to fall to earth with a parachute was a sheep.

20. The animal, attached to a seven-foot-wide umbrella, ____________ from a tower in France.

21. In 1797 a Frenchman ____________ Andre Gamerin climbed into a basket attached to a hot-air balloon and rose into the air above Paris.

22. When he reached an altitude of 2,230 feet, he cut the basket loose and fell toward the earth under an umbrella-like parachute. No one knew if a parachute would work from that height, but it ____________, and Gamerin went on to give many more parachute-jumping exhibitions.





I need gloves!

23. I’ve got a two-year-old brother, Jeremy. He ____________ to eat with a spoon or a fork, he prefers to eat with his hands.

24. Yesterday, my dad ____________ him a dish of ice cream, which was new to him.

25. Jeremy started ____________ it with his hands. My mom was in the next room when he yelled, “Mommy, my hands are cold!” “Well, then, use your spoon,” she replied. “No, no, Mommy,” he yelled back, “I need gloves!”




Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Cyber communication

26. The development of cyber communication - email, text messaging, and social networking - has revolutionized the way we communicate. Quick and ____________ communication via the Internet has proved essential to national governments, and to the individual.

27. Now, we can send and receive important messages, communicate and clarify statements ____________ within seconds.

28. Cyber communication is very important in ____________.

29. On a more individual level, cyber communication has transformed the method in which people communicate. In particular, social networking sites have provided access to people in every comer of the globe and their ____________ is growing.

30. This has helped old friends living far apart to maintain a close ____________.

31. For many people, not just teens, social networking has become an alternative to ____________ forms of communication - writing a letter, a face-to-face conversation, or a phone call.







Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Vacation plans

Christopher and Margaret Roberts always spent their summer vacation as far away from England as they could possibly afford. 32 ____, as they both were teachers at a small preparatory school just north of Bristol, their experience of four of the five continents was largely 33 ____ to periodicals such as National Geographic and Time.

But their annual vacation each August was sacred, and they spent eleven months of the year saving, planning, and preparing for their one extravagant luxury. The following eleven months they spent 34 ____ their pupils about their discoveries.

During the long evenings when their pupils were meant to be asleep, Christopher and Margaret would examine maps, analyze expert opinion, and then finally come up with a shortlist to consider. In recent trips they had 35 ____ to visit Norway, northern Italy, and Slovakia, ending up the previous year exploring the east coast of Greece.

“It has to be Turkey this year. We can 36 ____ afford any other trip. The prices have risen again,” said Christopher one evening. A week later, Margaret 37 ____ to the same conclusion, and so they were able to move on to Phase Two. Every book on Turkey in the local library was borrowed and consulted. By the first day of the summer term, charter tickets were paid for and reservations were 38 ____.


1) Nevertheless

2) Although

3) However

4) Therefore

Ответ: [ ]


1) reserved

2) restricted

3) restrained

4) retained

Ответ: [ ]


1) speaking

2) talking

3) saying

4) telling

Ответ: [ ]


1) fulfilled

2) achieved

3) managed

4) succeeded

Ответ: [ ]


1) merely

2) hardly

3) closely

4) purely

Ответ: [ ]


1) came

2) went

3) took

4) got

Ответ: [ ]


1) held

2) kept

3) made

4) done

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 19-38 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 19-31 буквы записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39у 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Jack who writes:

...Last month I earned some extra money mowing the lawns for our neighbors. Together with my pocket money I have enough to buy something like a smartphone. What would you suggest buying and why? Where can a teenager earn pocket money in Russia, if at all? How much money do your parents give you as pocket money per week?

Next week I am presenting my project in our science class...

Write a letter to Jack.

In your letter

- answer his questions

- ask 3 questions about his project Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

40. Comment on the following statement.

A popular actor s life is always fun.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position

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