Английский язык Единый государственный экзамен - комплекс материалов для подготовки учащихся - 2018


Раздел 1. Аудирование

1. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.

1. Some modem films are very similar to each other.

2. The quality of films today isn’t what it used to be.

3. Big names in cinema make films commercially successful.

4. You can always find a movie to suit your current mood.

5. Films should be used as a source of learning.

6. Sometimes it’s good to watch a film just for fun.

7. Some films can put you in a bad mood.









2. Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

[A] Jane is getting ready for her final exams.

[B] Jane won’t be able to study tonight.

[C] Jane’s computer isn’t working because of a software failure.

[D] Fred has offered to lend Jane a computer.

[E] Jane thinks she won’t be able to finish her work on time.

[F] Fred enjoys watching horror films at the cinema.

[G] Jane will go to the cinema alone.









Соответствие диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3. What does James Chandler say about reading in the USA?

1) It’s more popular than watching television.

2) America is currently the biggest reading nation.

3) Americans buy and read only bestsellers.

Ответ: [ ]

4. Which is, according to James Chandler, the first reason of books’ popularity in the USA?

1) Proper education.

2) The growing number of libraries.

3) A variety of publications.

Ответ: [ ]

5. What, according to James Chandler, is good about book sales at local libraries?

1) People show how much they care about their libraries.

2) The libraries buy books at big discounts.

3) They make books more available.

Ответ: [ ]

6. What does James Chandler say about American public libraries?

1) They protect books from people.

2) They’re located only in big cities.

3) People donate books to libraries to sell.

Ответ: [ ]

7. Which does James Chandler NOT list as a place where one can buy books in the USA?

1) Airports.

2) Book clubs.

3) Drug stores.

Ответ: [ ]

8. Which of the following is TRUE about student-run university book stores?

1) Students make big salaries there.

2) They operate 24 hours a day.

3) Sales support educational grants for students.

Ответ: [ ]

9. Why are the ‘paperback supermarkets’ good for the book trade?

1) They offer rather cheap prices.

2) They are conveniently located.

3) They have a wide choice of books.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 1-9 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами А-G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Strange colours in the sky

2. Changes of the seasons

3. Expanding the influence

4. The last role

5. The last night

6. Waves in the air

7. Influence of magic forces

8. For war and peace

A. In rural Irish communities of the early 1800s, weather forecasting was anything but a precise science. There were people who predicted and explained turns in the weather through the prism of superstition. One particular storm in 1839 was so peculiar that rural folk in the west of Ireland, stunned by its ferocity, feared it could be the end of the world. Some blamed it on the “fairies” from local tales.

B. The eruption of the volcano at Krakatoa in the Pacific Ocean was a major disaster by any measure. In 1883, the entire island of Krakatoa was simply blown apart, and the resulting tsunami killed tens of thousands of people on other islands. The volcanic dust thrown into the atmosphere affected the weather around the world, and people as far away as Britain and the United States saw red sunsets caused by particles in the atmosphere.

C. The dust from Mount Tambora, which had erupted in early April 1815 in the Indian Ocean, shrouded the globe. And with sunlight blocked, 1816 did not have a normal summer. The weather in Europe and North America took a bizarre turn that resulted in crop failures and even famine. Spring came but then everything seemed to turn backward, as cold temperatures returned.

D. Wireless telegraphy originated as a term to describe electrical signaling without the electric wires to connect the end points. It was different from the conventional electric telegraph signaling. The term was initially applied to a variety of competing technologies to communicate messages encoded as symbols, without wires, around the turn of the 20th century, but radio emerged as the most significant.

E. By the time Abraham Lincoln became president, the telegraph had become an accepted part of American life. Lincoln's first State of the Union message was transmitted over the telegraph wires in 1861. During the Civil War, Lincoln spent many hours in the telegraph room of the War Department building near the White House. The president would generally write his messages in longhand, and telegraph operators would relay them, in military cipher, to the front.

F. One of the truly tragic events in American history is the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Just as the Civil War was coming to an end, on April 14, 1865, the president had sought a night of relaxation at Ford's Theatre, a short carriage drive from the White House. As Lincoln watched the play, John Wilkes Booth, an actor, shot the president and fled.

G. It is probably impossible to overestimate Queen Victoria’s importance to the British history of the 1800s. She took an active involvement in the affairs of state and strongly believed that Britain should rule much of the world as an empire. Indicating her role as an imperial leader, her official title as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland was changed in the late 1870s to also include the title Empress of India.









11. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

Welcome to Parliament Hill

Parliament Hill is the home of Canadian democracy and a proud national symbol. It is the heart of Canada’s federal government, where representatives from across the country meet to make laws A _________________. And it is much more than that. Parliament Hill is where you can explore figures, events and achievements that have shaped the country’s past, В _________________. Look closely and you can uncover an image of Canada, its people, history and culture.

The planning and construction of the buildings, monuments and landscapes of Parliament Hill began in 1859. Since then, the Hill C _________________ and modem country. The Hill is home to Canada’s federal government, and welcomes close D _________________. A place of work, a place to meet and a place of leisure, Canada’s Parliament Hill has come E _________________.

The beautiful structures of Parliament Hill include many historic monuments and stone buildings with copper-tiled roofs. The Centre Block is home to the Senate, the House of Commons and the Library. The Library of Parliament preserves and protects Canada’s legislative past. It ensures that senators and members of Parliament have immediate access F _________________ on all matters of parliamentary concern. However, the Library is more than a collection of books alone; it contributes to Canadian democracy by creating and delivering reliable and relevant information to and about Parliament.

1. and continue to influence its present and future

2. that influences the public opinion and lifestyle

3. has changed and evolved to reflect the needs of a growing

4. to one and a half million visitors each year

5. to half a million books and documents that help to inform them

6. that affect the lives of every Canadian

7. to both symbolize and celebrate the great nation it serves








Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Robb Wilier: gossip is good for you

Robb Wilier is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. He recently co-authored a paper called The Virtues of Gossip: Reputational Information Sharing as Prosocial Behaviour, which was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. His research has proved that some kinds of gossip are altruistic and beneficial to society. No matter how fundamental his research is, many people find it difficult to accept such an opinion.

Research has been going on for several years about the ways in which fears for reputation encourage people to behave. This led to get interested in gossip because gossip involves spreading reputational information about people in groups. More specifically, the authors were interested in an apparent tension between the bad reputation gossiping and gossipers have, but how there’s a lot of ways gossip has useful social functions.

In the first study, they attached participants to heart-rate monitors and monitored their emotional reactions to events they observed in the lab. One thing they observed was people doing economic exercises based on trust. The researchers arranged so they would observe someone behaving in an untrustworthy way repeatedly; then the participants would have a chance to warn someone else they thought would have to interact with that person next.

People very readily warned the next person, passing on socially useful information to them. But what was more interesting was the emotional register of the behaviour. As people saw a person behave in an untrustworthy way, they became frustrated and their heart rate increased. But when they had the opportunity to pass a warning on, that reduced or eliminated their frustration and also tempered their increased heart rate.

It is “prosocial” gossip that involves warning other people about untrustworthy others. It is pretty common. Generous people are more likely to engage in it and they report doing so out of a need to help others. It is very different from malicious gossip, which might be driven by a desire to spoil another’s reputation or advance oneself.

So why does gossip have such a bad reputation? This research has just sharpened that question. Why would it be that gossip, which we need to function socially in order to keep people behaving a bit better than they might otherwise, has a negative reputation? It could be that we don’t need gossip to have a positive reputation for people to do it. Even the people who pass judgment on gossipers are gossiping as they do so. It may be that socially we’re wired to gossip. Evolutionary theorists have argued that language evolved in part to facilitate gossip, so we’ve developed these social norms against excessive or malicious gossip to keep the system from getting out of hand. News in a lot of ways is dignified gossip. A broad definition of gossip would include the news. I wonder how many journalists would agree with or share such interpretation of news and their role in a society?

It’s very important that we discriminate between different kinds of gossip and the people who do it. The kind where you warn people about untrustworthy others is valid, so we shouldn’t feel bad about that.

12. Which of the following statements does NOT refer to the content of paragraph 2?

1) Gossipers have a bad reputation.

2) Society may benefit from gossip.

3) Gossip can ruin one’s reputation.

4) People in groups favour gossip.

Ответ: [ ]

13. The participants of the study observed ...

1) people in danger.

2) groups of economists.

3) trustworthy people.

4) examples of dishonest behavior.

Ответ: [ ]

14. Ability to pass on socially useful information made people ...

1) relaxed.

2) frustrated.

3) excited.

4) more confident.

Ответ: [ ]

15. “It” in ‘people are more likely to engage in it’ (paragraph 5) refers to ...

1) socially useful gossip.

2) malicious rumours.

3) a person’s reputation.

4) helping other people.

Ответ: [ ]

16. In what way did the research refer to the reason for gossip’s bad reputation?

1) It related it to language development.

2) It connected it to people’s behaviour.

3) It made the question more acute.

4) It proved that it couldn’t be explained.

Ответ: [ ]

17. The researchers see news as ...

1) opposite to gossip.

2) a kind of gossip.

3) an origin of gossip.

4) an outcome of gossip.

Ответ: [ ]

18. According to the author, what is important about gossip?

1) Not to pass it to untrustworthy people.

2) To see differences between kinds of gossip.

3) To try to feel good when you hear it.

4) To avoid people who do it.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 11 Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

Why do people decorate a tree on Christmas?

19. Have you ever thought about it? The custom of decorating a house with tree leaves or branches in December is actually ______________ than Christmas itself.

20. The ancient Romans celebrated a December feast, ______________ Saturnalia, by giving presents and decorating their houses.

21. At the same time, pagans in Germany worshipped a sacred oak tree. Then, when Christian missionaries ______________ them to celebrate Christmas, they used a fir tree.

22. These customs stayed alive in Germany for many centuries, and in 1840, they ______________ to England by a German prince.





Mothers and daughters

23. We are a family of three. Most of the cooking in our house ______________ by my husband, but sometimes I make dinner.

24. One day it dawned on me that our four-year-old daughter was willing to help me, but she ______________ to help her father. I asked her why.

25. “Well, Mom,” she said, “Dad seems to know what he ______________ in the kitchen.”




Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

The history of paper

26. Writing has been the center of civilization for centuries. Most of our important records are on paper. In fact, putting thoughts down in written form wasn't always easy or ______________.

27. Early people discovered that they could make simple ______________ on the walls of caves.

28. ______________, they couldn’t transport it.

29. Around 4000 B.C., people started scratching messages into heavy clay tablets. Although this form of written ______________ was now portable, it still was very heavy.

30. For centuries, people tried to discover better surfaces on which to record their thoughts. Almost everything ______________ was tried. Wood, stone, ceramics, cloth, bark, metal, silk, bamboo, and tree leaves were all used as a writing surface at one time or another.

31. No major changes in writing materials were to come for about 3,000 years. A Chinese man named Ts'ai Lun Ts'ai Lun, discovered a way to make paper. The importance of this ______________ is hard to overestimate.







Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.


Sefton Hamilton was not a very, nice man. The first time I met him was last year, when my wife and I were dining with Henry and Susan Kennedy at their home in Warwick Square. I didn’t like Hamilton at first 32 ____.

Hamilton was one of those unfortunate men who inherited immense wealth but not a lot more. He was able to convince us that he had little time to read and no time to attend the theatre or opera. Actually, he was not 33 ____ in anything but himself. 34 ____, this did not prevent him from holding opinions on every subject from Shaw to Pavarotti, from Gorbachev to Picasso. He couldn’t understand, for instance, why the unemployed were so unhappy when their welfare check was just a little less than what he was currently paying the workers on his estate.

The other dinner guest that night was Freddie Barker, the President of the Wine Society, who sat opposite my wife. Unlike Hamilton, he 35 ____ uttered a word. Henry had assured me over the phone that Barker was considered to be a leading authority on his subject and he had 36 ____ to get the Society back on to a proper financial footing. I looked forward to picking up useful bits of inside information. 37 ____ Barker was allowed to get a word in, he showed enough knowledge of the topic under discussion to convince me that he would be fascinating if only Hamilton would 38 ____ silent long enough for him to speak. But it was impossible to stop Hamilton.


1) look

2) glimpse

3) sight

4) view

Ответ: [ ]


1) involved

2) keen

3) fond

4) interested

Ответ: [ ]


1) Although

2) However

3) Otherwise

4) Therefore

Ответ: [ ]


1) merely

2) nearly

3) hardly

4) closely

Ответ: [ ]


1) succeeded

2) managed

3) achieved

4) fulfilled

Ответ: [ ]


1) Whenever

2) Wherever

3) Whoever

4) Whatever

Ответ: [ ]


1) resist

2) retain

3) remain

4) reserve

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 19—38 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Ann who writes:

...Yesterday we planted more than 60 flowers in the garden. The first thing we saw in the morning was a group of wild deer finishing our flowers near the back porch. My dad says it’s a waste of time to plant flowers that can be destroyed. What would you say to this? Are there trees or plants near your house and who has planted them? What other ways of decorating the yard can you suggest?

Just imagine, my grandparents are going on a cruise holiday!...

Write a letter to Ann.

- answer her questions

- ask 3 questions about her grandparents Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

40. Comment on the following statement.

A university degree is a must for success in the modern world.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position

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