Английский язык Единый государственный экзамен - комплекс материалов для подготовки учащихся - 2018


Раздел 1. Аудирование

1. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего А-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.

1. Pets can be clever and feel the mood of their master.

2. Animals should live in their natural habitat.

3. This pet is seen as dangerous even by family members.

4. To have a pet you need permission from your parents.

5. This pet can help to relax after a stressful day.

6. This pet can communicate with its master.

7. Some pets are too unusual to keep at home.









2. Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 - True), какие не соответствуют (2 - False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 - Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

[A] Laura is upset because she has some financial problems.

[B] Laura likes all the clothes she’s bought on sales.

[C] Laura spent all her money on the Christmas sales.

[D] James has never bought anything on sales.

[E] According to James, shopping may attract boys as much as girls.

[F] James can’t give Laura any advice.

[G] Laura and James will go to the coffee shop on High Street.









Соответствие диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3-9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 7, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3. Which of the following does Diane NOT mention about musical training?

1) It helps children with special needs.

2) It makes the human brain develop quickly.

3) It enhances communication skills.

Ответ: [ ]

4. What does musical training do to help education?

1) It helps to develop lots of various senses.

2) It provides students with extra information.

3) It teaches children how to speak.

Ответ: [ ]

5. What did Diane learn from the experiment about the brain stem activity?

1) Music may affect it.

2) It can’t be changed.

3) It is not important for learning.

Ответ: [ ]

6. What people were involved in the experiment?

1) People with learning disabilities.

2) People who could play the cello.

3) People regardless of their musical abilities.

Ответ: [ ]

7. People with musical training experience did better in ...

1) sciences.

2) humanities.

3) both sciences and humanities.

Ответ: [ ]

8. With the help of musical training children with learning disabilities begin to ...

1) produce longer sentences.

2) use body language.

3) understand miming better.

Ответ: [ ]

9. Where is Diane’s discovery being used?

1) In all comprehensive schools.

2) In some experimental schools.

3) In music schools all over the country.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ МП Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Not for children

2. Benefits for poor countries

3. Illegal and unsafe

4. Small size - great role

5. One is not enough

6. Don’t speak - text

7. Spreading wider - weighing lighter

8. One device - many functions

A. A mobile phone (also known as a cell phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls while moving around. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. In addition to telephony, modem mobile phones also support a wide variety of other services such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, Bluetooth, business applications, gaming and photography.

B. The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing around 1 kg. In 1983, the first commercial cell phone was released. In the twenty years from 1990 to 2010, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 4.6 billion. It got to the developing countries and reached the poorest citizens. The devices themselves have also become smaller and much lighter.

C. The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000. Mobile news services are expanding with many organizations providing “оп-demand” news services by SMS.

D. Mobile phones need a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module, or SIM card, to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM card does not only store data like telephone numbers but also allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device.

E. Mobile phones are used for keeping in touch with family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in an emergency. Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans - a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming.

F. Mobile phones have spread more quickly than any other technology and can improve the life of the poorest people in developing countries. They provide access to information in places where landlines or the Internet are not available. In Africa, people travel from village to village to let friends and relatives know about weddings and births. They need not do this if the villages are within coverage. Mobile phones are recharged using a solar panel or motorcycle battery.

G. Mobile phone use while driving is common but dangerous, as it increases the risk of accident. Many countries prohibit it. Some schools also limit or restrict the use of mobile phones because cell phones are used for cheating on tests, harassment and bullying, causing threats to the school's security. Many mobile phones are banned in school locker room facilities, public restrooms and swimming pools due to the built-in cameras that most phones now have.









11. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифры; обозначающие соответствующиечасти предложений, в таблицу.

Springtime celebration

When Washington DC’s signature cherry trees bloom, it is a sure sign that spring has arrived. The National Cherry Blossom Festival runs over three weekends annually, marking each anniversary of the gift of the trees and celebrating the A ______________.

The Festival is always packed with special events В ______________. Families flock to the National Building Museum for Family Day and the Open Ceremony and to the southwest waterfront for impressive fireworks. DC’s hip and artistic crowd even has a place on the Festival calendar with Cherry Blast, C ______________. Visitors can catch free cultural showcases every day by nearly 100 performance groups at the Sylvan Theatre on the Washington Monument grounds.

It is also a prime time to check out a specialty tour D ______________. You will learn about the history of the trees and brush up on your photography skills as you capture the Tidal Basin at its finest.

Although the Festival is planned to coincide with the blooming of the trees, the actual bloom dates depend on weather conditions and vary from year to year. The National Park Service monitors the blossoms throughout the year and releases its prediction, E ______________, in early March. The peak bloom date is defined as the day on which 70 percent of the blossoms of the Yoshino cherry trees that surround the Tidal Basin are open. The Blooming Period is defined as F ______________ until the petals fall and leaves appear. The blooming period can last as long as two weeks.

1. naming the peak bloom date

2. the period when 20 percent of the blossoms are open

3. that are designed to please all ages and interests

4. friendship between the U.S. and Japan

5. that is provided by DC’s talented and creative guides

6. which is a celebration of contemporary art and music

7. which are popular for eating outdoors








Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.


For almost every person there will be a time in their life when they decide that they want to volunteer. There could be numerous reasons why you want to start doing volunteering work - from retirement to plain old fashioned good will. Different people may find different arguments in favour of doing this kind of work or service, if I can put it this way. But how do you get into the world of volunteering?

First of all, you need to make the time to volunteer and before you can start approaching organizations and enquiring about volunteering opportunities, you need to first figure out how much of your time you can dedicate to volunteering. If you are working, then ask your employer if you can have consistent weekdays off, so you can then have regular time to volunteer each week. When you can promise a set amount of time to an organization, then they are much more likely to offer you a volunteering position. So think twice whether you can allocate enough time to this work before you start, otherwise it can be very disappointing for both sides.

Next, it is time to think about why you want to volunteer. This may sound obvious, but have a good long think about the reasons why you are volunteering. Is it because you’re passionate about helping others? Is it because you want to meet and spend time with new people? Or is it because you want to gain further experience and qualifications? Knowing your motives can help you decide which organizations and roles are best suited to your wants. Mind there are more opportunities for volunteering than you might know about or imagine.

The next step is to find an organization to volunteer with. You can volunteer at a local homeless shelter or at a charity shop. Maybe you like working with children, in which case the local youth center would be an ideal place to start with. Perhaps animals are more your-thing, so you could ask a local animal shelter if they need a hand. As it was mentioned before, there are plenty of places you could volunteer to work with. Simply do your research, find the place that suits you and get in touch. Many organizations don’t advertise that they’re looking for volunteers, so it may be up to you to make the first move and contact them.

So, now you know how much time you can dedicate to volunteering, as well as why you want to volunteer and where you want to do it. The next step is to secure your position working within that organization by writing a CV. This may not be a paid position, but that doesn’t mean you should be less ambitious than you normally would be when approaching a potential employer. In your CV you should outline any experience you’ve h*ad that is relevant to your voluntary position, explain why you want to volunteer and how you would benefit the company. State clearly how much free time you have to dedicate and how long you would be comfortable to work for the organization in terms of days, weeks, and months.

Laying out these clear ground rules will prevent you from being taken advantage of and overworked, and will also help your potential employer understand your needs. Apart from being rewarding in many ways (though not in the financial one), volunteering is often envisaged as an important part of social and personal maturing. No wonder there are so many volunteers among the young people in many countries of the world.

12. According to the author, people mostly become interested in volunteering because it is ...

1) an interesting activity for pensioners.

2) a popular trend in the modem world.

3) natural for a human being.

4) a chance to experience new things.

Ответ: [ ]

13. According to the author, to start volunteering one first has to ...

1) get rid of a full-time job.

2) know exactly how much time one has available.

3) acquire the approval of the boss.

4) get in touch with a responsible organization.

Ответ: [ ]

14. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as the reason to volunteer?

1) The wish to be useful.

2) The desire to socialize.

3) The need to upgrade one’s skills.

4) The need to get organized.

Ответ: [ ]

15. The choice of the organization for volunteering depends on ...

1) a person’s personal preferences.

2) the ability to find such places.

3) the needs of the organization.

4) the features of the person’s character.

Ответ: [ ]

16. In order to be able to find an interested organization, a person should ...

1) like homeless animals.

2) look for a proper advertisement.

3) be active and take initiative.

4) look for it in the same community.

Ответ: [ ]

17. According to the author, а СV demonstrates your ...

1) professional attitude.

2) academic background.

3) plans for your future career.

4) hobbies and interests.

Ответ: [ ]

18. It can be inferred that the author gives these instructions so that people can

1) avoid risks doing this work.

2) find the best organization.

3) take the best from their volunteering experience.

4) realize their potential talents.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 10-18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 11 Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

Pancake Day

19. Pancake Day is celebrated in many countries of the world. Unlike Russia, this celebration in Europe and America lasts only one day. It takes place on Tuesday, _____________ Pancake Tuesday.

20. In England, pancake races _____________ all over the country.

21. Women _____________ part in them must wear an apron and a hat or scarf. Each of them has a frying pan containing a hot pancake. She must toss it three times during the race.

22. At the end of the race, the pancake should look just as appetizing, round and beautiful as at the start of the race. It _____________ easy!





An accident

23. It was a cold winter night. I _____________ home from the office.

24. I _____________ how slippery it was. When I tried to stop at the crossroads, I couldn’t. My car crashed into the bumper of a police car.

25. I was preparing my apologies, when the police officer opened his door, stepped out and fell flat on his behind. To my relief, he simply said, “Be careful,” and we both _____________ on our way.




Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

History of fashion

26. Different events in history influence how people dressed during those times. For example, during World War II people used the minimum amount of clothing materials to make simple outfits. They were _____________ enough for wartime duties.

27. The profession of _____________ was not popular at the time.

28. Sometimes social and political changes affect how people dress. For instance, in the 1980s the idea was that you could become as _____________ as you believed yourself to be. Therefore, many people “dressed for success”. Many men and women wore suits that would help them move up the career ladder.

29. Present-day fashion for men is still _____________. Usually a dark-colored suit is worn with a white shirt and a tie.

30. Some fashions are classic, meaning that they never go out of style. However, other clothing items are _____________ for a short season only.

31. Sometimes the _____________ of a particular outfit depends upon one person - a film star or a pop-singer.







Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32-38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32-38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.


When I was ten, I spent the best months of my life in Norway at the mountain farm where my mother was born. What 32 ____ most vivid in my mind are the times I shared with my Grandfather Jorden.

The first thing I 33 ____ about Grandfather was his big hands and broad shoulders. The second thing was how he could work. All summer I watched him. He mowed grass, gathered the hay in huge bundles, and carried them on his back to the bam. He caught and salted fish, grew and stored potatoes. He stopped only long enough to eat and to sleep a few winks. 34 ____ people could work so hard.

And yet he 35 ____ to find time for just the two of us. One day he gave me a knife. He took his own knife and cut a thin branch from a 36 ____ tree. He showed me how to make a flute. Even today, 60 years later, whenever I hear the pure notes of a flute, I think of how he made music from nothing but a branch of a tree.

As an American, I always thought people simply bought whatever they needed. I don’t know 37 ____ Grandfather knew this, but it seems he wanted to teach me something. And the flute will always 38 me of my Grandfather and his life lessons.


1) leaves

2) remains

3) persists

4) continues

Ответ: [ ]


1) noticed

2) remarked

3) looked

4) recognized

Ответ: [ ]


1) Many

2) Little

3) Few

4) Much

Ответ: [ ]


1) fulfilled

2) achieved

3) succeeded

4) managed

Ответ: [ ]


1) close

2) nearby

3) next

4) near

Ответ: [ ]


1) therefore

2) however

3) whether

4) although

Ответ: [ ]


1) remind

2) recall

3) remember

4) recollect

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 19-38 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 19-31 буквы записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Ann who writes:

...Next week we’re presenting our projects in literature. I’ve written about Shakespeare and his time. I’ve spent the whole month on this research and it helped me to understand that I’d like to be a historian. What would you like to do in the future? Who or what helped you to make the choice? What kind of training do you need for this occupation?

Last week my parents bought me a kitten. I like him so much! ...

Write a letter to Ann.

In your letter

- answer her questions

- ask 3 questions about Ann’s kitten Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

40. Comment on the following statement.

The life of animals in a zoo is safer and happier than in their natural habitat.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position

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