Английский язык Единый государственный экзамен - комплекс материалов для подготовки учащихся - 2018


Раздел 1. Аудирование

1. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.

1. Writing music for the piano is the easiest task for a composer.

2. Technology can make classics sound more understandable.

3. Music is successful only if people want to listen to it regularly.

4. Teaching music to kids can give you joy.

5. Variety in genres is the key to success for me.

6. Classical music is not only for professionals or the privileged few.

7. When writing music, composers should consider several target groups.









2. Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

[A] Trevor thinks everybody loves the beach.

[B] Amanda doesn’t like to spend time on the beach.

[C] Trevor goes surfing only on the weekends.

[D] Trevor comes to the beach exclusively to surf.

[E] Trevor is about 25 years old.

[F] On the beach Trevor has all he needs.

[G] Trevor is not in Australia now.









Соответствие диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3. The snow crystals grow from ...

1) air.

2) water.

3) dust.

Ответ: [ ]

4. What does Jane say about a snow crystal’s shape?

1) It’s absolutely different for every crystal.

2) It may be in one of two basic patterns.

3) It doesn’t depend on the air temperature.

Ответ: [ ]

5. According to Jane, why does snow seem to be blue sometimes?

1) Because of peculiarities in the light reflection.

2) Because of the amount of sunlight.

3) Because of the distance we look at it from.

Ответ: [ ]

6. According to Jane, which places are more likely to get more snowfall?

1) Any highlands.

2) Warmer areas.

3) Coastal territories.

Ответ: [ ]

7. Which of the following may be a symptom of an illness caused by snow?

1) Red skin.

2) Irrational behavior.

3) Overeating.

Ответ: [ ]

8. Which of the following is among Jane’s recommendations to a driver caught in a snow storm?

1) Leave the car immediately.

2) Don’t turn on the engine.

3) Put a bright object above the car.

Ответ: [ ]

9. Which positive use of snow does Jane NOT mention?

1) Production of electricity.

2) Growing crops.

3) Drinking water provision.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ М 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. To take from home

2. Evening drinks

3. Food for relaxation

4. Skipping the meal

5. Foreign cuisine

6. Unusual meals

7. Traditional morning meal

8. Take it ready to eat

A. If you go to a hotel in Britain and ask for a typical English breakfast, you will probably get bacon and eggs, sausage, mushrooms, baked beans, tea and toast. When porridge or fruit juice are offered as well, the meal is sometimes advertised as a “full English breakfast”. Many years ago people couldn’t imagine their breakfast without a bowl of cereal or usual bacon and eggs.

B. But how many people in England actually eat an English breakfast? Only one person in ten! One in five people say all they have for breakfast is a cup of coffee, and many children go to school without eating anything. That is happening because people lack time. They are always in a hurry and prefer to choose something light and ready-made, especially in the morning.

C. If in Britain you stay with a family, you will almost certainly be given a “packed lunch” to eat for your midday meal. Some factories and schools have canteens where a packed lunch is the most common thing to eat. A packed lunch usually consists of some sandwiches, a packet of crisps, an apple, and a can of something to drink, for example, Coca-Cola. The quality of the packed lunch can vary.

D. Fish and chips is the classic English takeaway food. It is usually bought ready cooked at special shops - fish and chip shops, or “chippies” as they are sometimes called. This takeaway food is wrapped in paper to be eaten at home or outside. If you go to a fish and chip shop, you’ll be asked if you want salt and vinegar to be sprinkled over your chips. Be careful because sometimes they give you too much.

E. If you have trouble getting off to sleep, don’t panic. There are plenty of healthy, low fat alternatives to pills to help you nod off. Why not try a glass of warm skimmed milk, or even a cup of camomile tea? These natural and low-fat drinks will help you to get asleep. They can also relax you after a difficult day.

F. Every British town has Indian or Chinese restaurants. There are more Chinese takeaways than there are fish and chips shops in the UK. But most people are eating curry. Curry is now Britain's most popular meal because the majority of British people like spicy food. But British people like food from other countries, too. They say it allows them to understand other cultures better.

G. Eating carbohydrate-rich foods like bread, cereal, rice and pasta causes the production of serotonin, which makes us feel calm. Fruit and vegetables also set off the production of this chemical. Milk and cheese are also useful. The next time you feel stressed, try a little piece of bread and a glass of milk and you’ll feel better in no time.








11. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующиечасти предложений, в таблицу.


Few inventions have had as much effect on contemporary society, especially American society, as television. Before 1947 the number of U.S. homes with television sets A ______________. By the late 1990s, 98 percent of U.S. homes had at least one television set, and those sets were on for an average of more than seven hours a day. The typical American spends (B ______________) from two-and-a-half to almost five hours a day watching television.

The invention of TV is not credited to one single person. Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth both played instrumental roles. Electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco on Sept. 7, 1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a 21-year-old inventor who C ______________ until he was 14. While still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to think of a system that D ______________ in a form that could be coded onto radio waves and then transformed back into a picture on a screen. Boris Rosing and Vladimir Zvorykin in Russia had conducted some experiments in E ______________ Farnsworth’s first success. Also, a mechanical television system, which scanned images using a F ______________, had been demonstrated by John Logie Baird in England and Charles Francis Jenkins in the United States earlier in the 1920s. However, Farnsworth’s invention and Vladimir Zvorykin’s electronic TV system are the direct ancestors of modem television.

1. depending on the survey and the time of year

2. rotating disk with holes arranged in a spiral pattern

3. could be measured in the thousands

4. could capture moving images

5. funding a number of research programmes

6. transmitting images 16 years before

7. had lived in a house without electricity








Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Lesson in humility

I was nine when this started. That was in 1964, the year my mother left us. Chess led me to Horatio - chess and my father and my absent mother and the fact that on that day, I broke the rule about not showing what you feel.

My form-master of that year at the private day-school I went to was a chess enthusiast. He explained the rules to us, he encouraged us to play. He was kind to me and I admired him, more than admired: I wanted to be where he was. I suppose I was more than usually responsive to kindness just at that time. To please him I tried hard to be good at chess and I discovered that I was good. I had a natural talent, the master said.

I joined the school chess club. I took part in tournaments and distinguished myself. Shilling at few things, for a brief season I shone at chess. I studied the game, I read the accounts of historic encounters, the ploys of long-dead masters, and I played them out alone. I would set out the pieces at random, then sweep them off and try to replace them from memory. At night, I would picture the chess board, go through the moves of some legendary end-game and find consolation.

A colleague of my father was there one Sunday afternoon - my father was a senior official at the Treasury. “Your father tells me you are quite a chess-player.” On his reddish face an indulgent look. “At least by his own report,” my father said with a sarcastic smile. He seemed to suggest I had boasted. Perhaps I had. “Not up to your level, Henry, not yet.” Henry, Harry, Humphrey. A chessplayer of note. ‘Fancy a game, young man?’

We played and I won. He still had half his pieces on the board when I checkmated him. Pleasure in victory, expectation of praise - face and voice were not yet practiced enough, I suppose I showed my feelings too clearly. My father looked at me, but uttered no word. He went out, came back with a book from his study, brought it over for me to see. “Look here,” he said, the colleague meanwhile looking on. “Look at these people here.”

He had opened the book roughly in the middle. There were two faces, one on either side: William Pitt the Younger and Horatio Nelson. Neither name meant anything to me at the time. Later, of course, I knew them for close contemporaries -Horatio was a year older and died three months earlier.

“Take a good look,” my father said. “These two men saved our country, they had reason to be pleased with themselves.”

He meant it for my benefit or so I like to think. He did not want me to be jubilant in victory, to overrate small achievements. He wanted to inspire me with worthy ambitions. But in his manner and tone I sensed displeasure; he was not pleased at my success, it had disturbed his sense of the natural order.

My interest in chess did not long survive that day, the lesson in humility proved the death-blow to it. I continued to play during what was left of the term, but my heart was not in it, I lost the appetite for victory, my game fell off. In the autumn, Monty and I were sent away to boarding school and I never played chess again.

12. The narrator started playing chess because of the encouragement from ...

1) his father.

2) his mother.

3) his teacher.

4) Horatio.

Ответ: [ ]

13. In paragraph 3 the words “shining at few things” mean that the boy ...

1) did not have many achievements.

2) won a few tournaments.,

3) perfected his chess skills.

4) devoted himself to many activities.

Ответ: [ ]

14. The father spoke about his son’s chess talent ...

1) enthusiastically.

2) boastfully.

3) happily.

4) ironically.

Ответ: [ ]

15. The father was displeased with his son because ...

1) his colleague was hurt by the defeat.

2) the boy couldn’t hide his pleasure.

3) he had hoped for his loss.

4) the boy broke the rules of the game.

Ответ: [ ]

16. What did the boy think about William Pitt and Horatio Nelson?

1) They were models for the boy.

2) He didn’t want to be like them.

3) He knew nothing about them at the time.

4) He liked William Pitt but disposed Horatio Nelson.

Ответ: [ ]

17. The father’s words were meant to ...

1) teach his son some history.

2) show his son how wrong he was.

3) show his son how to celebrate a victory.

4) teach his son to evaluate one’s achievements.

Ответ: [ ]

18. The boy stopped playing chess because ...

1) he had to leave his school.

2) he lost interest.

3) his father wouldn’t let him play.

4) he had started losing games.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

The game of chess

19. No one knows for certain where the game of chess comes from. Most likely, the first game _____________ in ancient India in the 6th century.

20. During the 6th or 7th century, the game _____________ chaturanga travelled from India to neighbouring Persia.

21. There its name _____________ shatranj. The word “chess” comes from either shatranj, or from the Persian shah, which means “king.” “Checkmate” comes from the Persian shah mat, which means “the king is dead.”

22. _____________, in the 13th century, the game came to Europe.





The Earth

23. The Earth is moving around the Sun at about 1,800 kilometers a minute. However, there _____________ anything close by to show this.

24. When _____________ in a car, you see nearby bushes and buildings rushing by, but mountains in the distance don’t seem to move at all.

25. If we had other satellites close by along the route of Earth’s orbit, we’d see how fast we are going. But the stars are like the mountains, too far away to help _____________ judge our speed.




Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Russia at the 2012 London Olympics

26. There are different opinions as to the results of the Russian team at the London Olympics. In medal-winning terms, Russia's 2012 _____________ is better than that at the Beijing Olympics in 2008, improving from 23 gold medals to 24 and up from a total of 73 medals to 82.

27. But the British were more _____________ with 29 gold medals, moving Russia into the fourth place.

28. The reaction in Russia during the first days of the Olympics was largely _____________, but then changed as more and more medals were won.

29. Yet, we have to admit that in some ways our sportsmen were _____________. For example, there were no gold medals in weightlifting this time, though we usually had had a number of them at the Olympics.

30. Alexander Zhukov, president of the Russian Olympic Committee, explains China’s success in the following way: “They have actually copied the Soviet system of children's _____________.”

31. He adds, “It is rather difficult for us to return to the Soviet system now and, besides, I doubt whether it is _____________ in this day and age.”







Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32-38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.


Robert Henry Kefford III was known to his friends as Bob. He was sorry to be leaving Cambridge. He had spent three glorious years at St. John’s, and 32 ____ he hadn’t read as many books as he had done for his undergraduate degree at the University of Chicago, he had tried hard to come in head of the river. It wasn’t unusual for an American to win a rowing competition in the early 1970s, but he 33 ____ to win a victorious Cambridge eight for three years in a row. 34 ____ Britons have done it.

Bob’s father, Robert Henry Kefford II, known to his friends as Robert, has traveled over to England to watch his son take part in all three races from Putney to Mortlake. After Bob had stroked Cambridge to victory for the third time, his father 35 ____ him that he must not return to his native Illinois without having presented a memento to the University Boat Club that they would 36 ____ him by.

“And don’t forget, my boy,” declared Robert Henry Kefford II, “better to show that you have 37 ____ an effort to present them with an object of historic value than give them something that obviously cost a great deal of money. The British appreciate that sort of thing.”

Bob spent many hours considering his father’s words, but completely 38 ____ to come up with any worthwhile ideas.


1) however

2) although

3) therefore

4) moreover

Ответ: [ ]


1) achieved

2) managed

3) succeeded

4) fulfilled

Ответ: [ ]


1) Few

2) Many

3) Much

4) Little

Ответ: [ ]


1) talked

2) spoke

3) said

4) told

Ответ: [ ]


1) review

2) remind

3) remember

4) recall

Ответ: [ ]


1) held

2) made

3) done

4) kept

Ответ: [ ]


1) lacked

2) lost

3) failed

4) missed

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 19-38 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 19-31 буквы записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Edward who writes:

...I’m going to join a music club. I want to be a musician. What sort of music do you usually enjoy listening to? Have your musical tastes changed over the years? Why? Do you and your friends prefer listening to live music or recorded music?

Yesterday I bought a new book ...

Write a letter to Edward.

In your letter

- answer his questions

- ask 3 questions about his new book Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

40. Comment on the following statement.

You shouldn’t rely on your family and friends in choosing a career.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position

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