Английский язык Единый государственный экзамен - комплекс материалов для подготовки учащихся - 2018


Раздел 1. Аудирование

1. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего А-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу.

1. Earning money for education has its minuses.

2. These two things can change the teacher’s motivation.

3. Money is not all that matters to the devoted teacher.

4. Teachers can also learn from their students.

5. Even the best of teachers can’t be effective without students’ input.

6. Teaching brings the whole world to the classroom.

7. Students’ true interest in the subject is the best reward for the teacher.









2. Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 - True), какие не соответствуют (2 - False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 - Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

[A] Linda and Frank are going to the movies.

[В] Mel Gibson’s character fights in the War of Independence.

[С] Frank thinks the plot benefits from love stories.

[D] Mel Gibson’s character falls in love with a British girl.

[E] Frank finds the film unrealistic in many. ways.

[F] Frank is sure costumes will be the main attraction for Linda in the film.

[G] Linda plans to see the film that very night









Соответствие диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3-9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3. David has some work experience as ...

1) a military pilot.

2) a pilot of regional airlines.

3) a British Airlines representative.

Ответ: [ ]

4. David’s present duties include ...

1) helping his senior colleagues with their luggage and uniform.

2) paging important information to his senior colleagues.

3) replacing his senior colleagues when they are ill.

Ответ: [ ]

5. What is annoying to David in his current job?

1) The airline’s plans can go wrong.

2) It takes him too long to get to the airport.

3) Being paged interrupts his personal life.

Ответ: [ ]

6. Describing some difficulties in his current job, David says that ...

1) it is a normal part of a reserve pilot’s career.

2) other pilots have more serious problems.

3) he expects his job to become more difficult in the future.

Ответ: [ ]

7. What is the biggest disadvantage of David’s current job?

1) Lack of free time.

2) Irregular working hours.

3) Low salary.

Ответ: [ ]

8. Speaking about his flat-mates, David says that ...

1) they are not very friendly to him.

2) they always argue about who will cook the meals.

3) he doesn’t have the opportunity to see them very often.

Ответ: [ ]

9. What kind of training will David need in the future?

1) Training in flying A320.

2) Training for keeping up with changes.

3) Training in the company’s operations.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 1-9 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблиц. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Milk can be dangerous

2. Fighting poverty

3. The history of milk

4. Why you should drink milk

5. Milk around the world

6. A programme with a milky name

7. From glass to plastic

8. More than food

A. Milk is a primary source of nutrition for young mammals, including human babies, before they are able to digest other types of food. Moreover, it’s proved that milk carries antibodies from mothers to babies protecting them from illnesses or reducing the risk of them. So, apart from containing necessary nutrients for a newborn, milk has other important functions as well.

B. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals such as cows or goats and used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produce about 730 min tons of milk from 260 min dairy cows. India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of milk yet it neither imports nor exports milk. New Zealand and the USA are the world’s largest exporters of milk products.

C. Throughout the world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and milk products and over 750 million people live within dairy farms. Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security particularly in developing countries. Improvements in livestock and dairy technology offer significant promise in reducing poverty and malnutrition in the world.

D. Historically, milk was sold by milkmen in jars. The first glass bottle packaging for milk was used in the 1870s. The first company to do so may have been the New York Dairy Company in 1877. The Express Dairy Company in England began glass bottle production in 1880. Later in 1932 plastic coated paper milk cartons were introduced commercially and they are still popular worldwide.

E. It’s recommended that a person consume 3 glasses of fat-free or low-fat milk for adults and children 9 and older (less for younger children) per day. However, this recommendation is being disputed at the time given that there are other sources for calcium and vitamin D. Probably whole milk is still better for health due to its increased ability to satiate hunger.

F. However, many people in the world are unable to consume cow’s milk because they are unable to digest the sugar in milk called lactose. This sugar only exists in mammals’ milk. Most babies can digest lactose, but some people lose this ability after the age of two. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include nausea, cramps, and diarrhea and usually appear within two hours of consuming milk.

G. Milk is a must in every frig of a household. It’s such a common product that a new app for mobiles to help you plan your day wisely and remember important things was called ‘Remember the milk’. The programme sends you e-mails or SMS to remind you about the things you’ve planned. You can even change your plans in this program while being offline.









11. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей в списке 1—7 лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

Education for the 21st century

Since its creation in 1945, UNESCO’s mission has been to contribute to the building of peace, poverty eradication, lasting development and intercultural dialogue. Education is A ____________. The Organization is committed to a holistic and humanistic vision of quality education worldwide, В ____________, and the belief that education plays a fundamental role in human, social and economic development.

UNESCO’s educational objectives are to support the achievement of education for all; to provide global and regional leadership in education; to strengthen education systems worldwide from early childhood to the adult years; C ____________ through education.

UNESCO’s work encompasses educational development from pre-school through D ____________, non-formal education and literacy.

The Organization focuses on increasing access, E ____________ develops knowledge and skills in areas such as sustainable development, human rights and gender equality. UNESCO works with governments and a wide range of partners to F ____________ through policy change. It coordinates the Education for All movement, tracks education trends and raises the profile of educational needs on global development agendas.

1. the realization of everyone’s right to education

2. one of its principal activities to achieve this aim

3. make education systems more effective

4. to respond to contemporary global challenges

5. „ stimulating teachers to work more effectively

6. to higher education, including vocational education

7. improving quality, and ensuring that education








Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

The Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was one of the most advanced cultures in Mesoamerica, and their empire’s incredible reign (and mysterious collapse) is a source of fascination for all types of scholars. The culture is well-known for its long-count calendar, inscribed on a large stone, as well as its incredible architecture, and for having the first fully developed written language in the Americas. This is known due to the codices, or folding books, which have been found in various historical sites and are considered some of the era’s most important artifacts.

While many of these volumes were destroyed in the years during and after the Spanish conquest, three of the codices have been established as authentic beyond doubt. They are named after the cities in which they eventually came to reside: the Dresden, Madrid, and Paris codices. Other Maya books are extremely rare due to disintegration; many excavations of archaeological sites have unearthed lumps of plaster which are the remains of tomes where all organic matter has decomposed.

The Dresden Codex is one of the more well-known books, found in Chichen Itza. The last is believed to be the central city of the Maya civilization! The Dresden Codex is the oldest book written in the Western Hemisphere that’s ever been found, and consists of 39 double-sided sheets of amate paper. One of the most interesting things about the book is that it was written by eight different authors in a variety of colors, styles, and glyphs. The volume has an extraordinarily accurate astronomical table, including a chart that predicts the movement of Venus in the sky. It’s believed that the Maya rulers would organize their wars to occur only when the planet had risen. We still can’t explain what made it possible for the Maya people to make such accurate astronomical observations without special equipment, so there are constant talks about possible contacts of Maya with other interspace civilizations.

The Madrid Codex is more varied than the Dresden, and is thought to have been written by only one person after the Spanish had already arrived in Mesoamerica. It may have been sent back to Spain by Herman Cortes himself, and it now resides in the Museo de America in Madrid. The source city for this book is believed to be Tayasal, which was conquered by conquistadors in 1697.

The Paris Codex was acquired by France in 1832, and promptly disappeared for several years shortly after a few reproduction drawings had been made. It was rediscovered in 1859 in a basket of papers in the National Library, and is in poor condition as a result. The book contains prophecies relating to the Maya long-count calendar as well as their zodiac. Many people still believe in the verity of Maya prophecies, or at least in our ability to decipher them.

While these three are the only authenticated Maya codices, there are a number of others which are believed to be forgeries; the rarity of this type of artifact naturally causes a spike in the price for a new one. The Grolier Codex surfaced in the 1970s, and consists of 11 pages, which were discovered in a cave. It is an extremely convincing artifact, but scholars are in serious disagreement over its legitimacy. While the paper is ancient enough, the pictures on it have many inconsistencies and errors, and no consensus has yet been reached.

12. Which of the following is, according to the author, NOT what the Maya civilization is famous for?

1) Knowledge.

2) Outstanding constructions.

3) Military victories.

4) Time-planning charts.

Ответ: [ ]

13. The Maya codices became so important for modem scholars because they

1) were found in different places.

2) are direct evidence of an ancient culture.

3) disclose ancient mysteries.

4) can still function as a calendar.

Ответ: [ ]

14. The Codices are named after several European cities because ...

1) they were found there.

2) they are kept there.

3) these cities are also very old.

4) these cities are the best research centres.

Ответ: [ ]

15. According to the author, in Maya culture the planet Venus movement was used to show ...

1) when to change the ruler.

2) the accuracy of astronomical tables.

3) how to organize their civilization.

4) when to start a military action.

Ответ: [ ]

16. It can be implied that the Madrid Codex was ...

1) a war trophy.

2) bought for the museum.

3) the reason of an ancient conflict.

4) discovered by chance.

Ответ: [ ]

17. The Paris Codex is in the poorest condition because it was ...

1) not kept in a library.

2) poorly copied.

3) neglected for a period of time.

4) discovered too late.

Ответ: [ ]

18. The scholars are in doubt about the authenticity of the Grolier Codex because of ...

1) its controversial content.

2) the qualities of its paper.

3) the text style.

4) its size.

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19—25.

The North Pole has melted again

19. Two weeks of warm weather in the high Arctic have caused a lake to begin forming. To be clear, the water ____________ the pole is not sea water from the ocean.

20. It is ____________ ice water resting on a layer of ice below. “It’s a shallow lake. It’s a cold lake. But it is, actually, a lake,” writes William Wolfe of Canada.com.

21. That lake started to form on July 13 during a month of abnormally warm weather - temperatures were 1-3 degrees Celsius higher than average in the Arctic Ocean this month. In addition, the weather is likely to get ____________ over the coming week. An Arctic cyclone will bring strong winds and rain.




Snow in Brazil

22. According to the National Meteorology Institute, 87 towns in all three of Brazil’s southern states saw snow and freezing rain last week. The temperature ____________ below zero.

23. In some towns temperature as low as minus 7 degrees Celsius was registered. It was the ____________ time that it snowed in Florianopolis, and Curitiba, the capital of the state of Parana reported snow after 38 years.

24. Snow is rare in Brazil. Last year it ____________ out only in a handful of towns in the mountainous areas.

25. This year because of heavy snowfalls and low temperature a state of emergency ____________ in several towns of the country.





Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Don’t swim with ‘Dusty’

26. Dolphins are known for their gentle personality. But the celebrity dolphin, ‘Dusty’, one can see in Doolin Harbour, County Clare, Ireland is different. This female dolphin is well-known for her ____________ behaviour.

27. One day she was bathing next to a wall and stone steps of the harbour, with two ____________ nearby.

28. She soon turned sinister as she began to bash her tail on the surface of the water in a sign of anger and ____________, causing enormous splashes.

29. ____________ the dolphin surged through the water and hit a woman, leaving her screaming in pain.

30. The ____________ woman began shouting for help. She was dragged onto the steps by a bystander, but Dusty soon came back and menacingly raised her head out of the water before swimming away.

31. Dusty was first spotted in the waters as far back as 2000. At times she can seem ____________ and welcoming of the attention, but she can quickly turn nasty. Lifeguards in the area are now putting out red flags whenever Dusty is spotted in the area and have asked tourists not to swim with the dolphin.







Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

My family

I don’t believe anyone could describe me as a snob. However, I do believe that the saying “There’s a place for everything, and everything has its place” 32 ____ equally well to human beings.

I was born in Yorkshire in Victorian times and I can safely 33 ____ that during this period my family played a considerable role. My father, Sir Raymond Hardcastle, was not only an inventor and industrialist of great imagination and skill, but he also built up one of the nation’s most successful companies. At the same time he always 34 ____ his workers as if they were all part of the family. Indeed it was this example that he 35 ____, whenever he dealt with those less fortunate than himself that has been the benchmark by which I have attempted to conduct my own life.

I have no brothers and just one elder sister, Amy. 36 ____ there were only a couple of years between us, I cannot pretend that we were even particularly close, perhaps because I was an outgoing child, while she was shy and reserved. Her only interests in life were gardening, crochet work and the occasional visit to Scarborough festival. She never 37 ____ an attempt to get out of the family circle.

Gerald and I first met when I had been a houseguest at Lord Fanshaw’s country home in Norfolk. As it turned 38 ____, we had much in common. We were married in July 1895 and our son Guy was born a year later. My father simply doted on Guy and left everything to him.


1) concerns

2) applies

3) affects

4) influences

Ответ: [ ]


1) say

2) speak

3) tell

4) talk

Ответ: [ ]


1) counted

2) dealt

3) judged

4) treated

Ответ: [ ]


1) did

2) made

3) set

4) put

Ответ: [ ]


1) however

2) although

3) therefore

4) nevertheless

Ответ: [ ]


1) made

2) did

3) took

4) held

Ответ: [ ]


1) off

2) out

3) in

4) over

Ответ: [ ]

По окончании выполнения заданий 19-38 не забудьте перенести свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2. Черновые пометки можно делать прямо на листе с заданиями, или можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что Ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а также часть текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. Если одной стороны бланка недостаточно, Вы можете использовать другую его сторону.

39. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend John who writes:

...My brother has just graduated from University. He is a lawyer now. What professions are the most prestigious in Russia? What kinds of money-making jobs in Russia do not require a university degree? Do you want to go to college, why or why not?

This summer we are going on a three-day bicycle trip ...

Write a letter to John.

In your letter

- answer his questions

- ask 3 questions about the trip Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.

40. Comment on the following statement.

Young people like travelling more than senior citizens.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?

Write 200-250 words.

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem)

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion

- express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

- make a conclusion restating your position

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